Mastering The Gunas: The Bhagavad Gita’s Guide to Self-Transformation

The Bhagavad Gita – which is a great wisdom scripture, and can be considered the Bible of Hinduism – speaks of the three gunas. These are the three basic characteristics or attributes that exist in all things, including your body and mind.

Although this topic can get very philosophical, in this post I’ll focusing only on the psychological aspects of the gunas, and how they relate to our moods, emotions, and behaviour. This is an integral part of the psychology of Yoga.

Once you understand how the gunas work, you will be able to better understand and navigate your inner world, and to work with what life is giving you.

The three gunas


three gunas

In terms of activity, the gunas can be thought of in the following way:

  • tamas = inertia
  • rajas = movement
  • sattva = balance

In terms of colors, the gunas can be thought of in this way:

  • tamas = black (the absence of all colors)
  • rajas = the different colors (although traditionally it is represented as red)
  • sattva = white (the synthesis of all colors)

Everything can be classified according to the gunas. For the purposes of this post, let’s analyze some moods/emotions and group them accordingly.

Tamasic states: laziness, disgust, attachment, depression, helplessness, doubt, guilt, shame, boredom, addiction, hurt, sadness, apathy, confusion, grief, dependency, ignorance.

Rajasic states: anger, euphoria, anxiety, fear, irritation, worry, restlessness, stress, courage, rumination, determination, chaos.

Sattvic states: delight, happiness, joy, peace, wellness, freedom, love, compassion, equanimity, empathy, friendliness, focus, self-control, satisfaction, trust, fulfilment, calmness, bliss, cheerfulness, gratitude, fearlessness, selflessness.

Get the picture?

But it’s more complex than that…

gunas are interrelatedIn reality, however, things are not so black and white. Every phenomenon (mood, person, action, thought, etc.) contains a predominant guna, as well as a smaller dose of the other two gunas. That is why, for instance, we can transform one emotion into another. Anger, for example, can be transformed into compassion because the rajas state of anger contains some sattva, the predominant guna of compassion.

The intention behind an emotion, and how it is expressed, determines whether an emotion is predominantly tamasic, rajasic, or sattvic.

Take the emotion of courage, for example. A suicide bomber in a terrorist attack may be said to have tamasic courage (based on ignorance and hatred). A man who risks his health and comfort to obtain wealth or fame has rajasic courage (based on desire). And a man who sacrifices his ego or personal interest for a larger cause has sattvic courage (based on compassion and the greater good).

Let’s take laziness as another example. Tamasic laziness is when you don’t have motivation to do anything, or when you are attached to comfort. Rajasic laziness is when you are so engrossed with your activity that you are unable to stop and evaluate what’s happening. Sattvic laziness is when you are so fulfilled with a sense of satisfaction and peace that you can’t be bothered to do anything else.

The difference lies in the intention. Change the motivation and the context of a given emotion or action, and you will change its quality!

Working with the gunas

You now have a basic understanding of what the gunas are, and how to look for their manifestation both inside and outside of yourself.

Now… while this is a fascinating subject, you may be asking yourself: “What to do with all this?”

As conscious beings, we have the ability to manipulate the presence of gunas in us and in others. We do this by two means:

  • What we choose to pay attention to and to consume
  • How we choose to act

In other words, our attention and our intention.

Consuming Sattva

Our body is fed by food, water, and air. Our mind is fed by thoughts, feelings, and the input from the five senses.

So… Are you feeding your body and mind with tamas, rajas, or sattva?

Use the three gunas to understand the effects of the

  • food you eat,
  • movies you watch,
  • music you listen to,
  • people you spend time with,
  • places you go to,
  • websites you visit,
  • interests you pursue,
  • etc.

The principle is quite simple: the more you are exposed to a guna, the more that guna will grow in your mind and heart. Expose yourself to more sattva, and sattva will grow in you. Likewise tamas and rajas will grow instead if that’s what you’re feeding on.

Some people say that you are what you eat. That’s true. But you are also what you think, what you do, what you read, etc. We are a combination of the qualities of our thoughts, actions, and inputs.

As you go about in life, pay close attention to how you feel during and after consuming a meal, movie, text, conversation, idea, etc. Do you feel more calm, inspired, confident, wise, energetic, or clear? Or do you feel more tired, confused, restless, emotional, sluggish, anxious, or depressed?

So much for the five senses level.

On a subtler level, you need to also be mindful of the quality of your thoughts and emotions. Become aware of the effect your thoughts and emotions have on you. Are they making you paralysed (tamas), agitated (rajas), or calm and empowered (sattva)?

You may not have a choice about what thoughts and emotions show up, but you do have a choice about which ones you pay attention to. They are the ones that will linger, grow, and multiply.

Acting Sattva

Sattvic words, thoughts and actions increase sattva in the world – and also in yourself. The same happens in the case of the other gunas.

Action that is virtuous, thought through, free from attachment, and without craving for results is considered Sattvic; Action that is driven purely by craving for pleasure, selfishness and agitation is Rajasic; Action that is undertaken because of delusion, disregarding consequences, without considering loss or injury to others or self, is called Tamasic. — Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 18, verses 23–25

If you want to know the predominant guna behind your action, ask yourself these two questions:

  • Why am I doing this?
  • How am I doing this?

Ideally you want both the intention behind the action, as well as the execution of the action, to be sattvic.

Intention alone is not enough. A person who engages in dodgy businesses in order to support his family has a sattvic intention but a tamasic execution. As the saying goes, the road to hell is often paved with good intentions.

Anybody can become angry – that is easy, but to be angry with the right person and to the right degree and at the right time and for the right purpose, and in the right way – that is not easy. – Aristotle

The gunas and self-transformation

three gunas 1Understanding the gunas helps you see things more clearly. It helps you understand the quality of your thoughts, actions, and the things with which you engage.

Then it’s all about making conscious choices on what you consume, what thoughts you pay attention to, and how you act. In fact the secret of spiritual growth could be summed up thus: Learn to love and delight in sattva, and understand the pain of tamas. 

The conditioning of your lizard brain – which seeks pleasure and shuns pain – will take care of the rest for you!


Step by step

It is very hard to go from tamas directly to sattva – so use rajas as a step in between.

For example, if your dominant moods at this point in life tend to be tamasic (like exhaustion, depression, etc.), your aim should be to first get rid of tamas and get your rajas flowing. You can do this by raising your energy levels through activities such as physical exercise, cold showers, better food choices (or even fasting), less TV, socializing with active and positive people, or traveling to a new place.

From rajas it is then easier to arrive at sattva, by balancing out the excitement and learning to appreciate the more subtle pleasures of peace, harmony, contentment, and moderation. At this point, activities such as meditation, self-reflection, journaling, etc., can help you move into sattva, whereas trying them from a tamasic state can result in becoming sleepy or bored.

This reminds me of a vital insight that some spiritual teachers seems to miss: that it’s easier to move into egolessness (the “enlightened state”) from a healthy ego than from a broken one. That is why working on yourself (be it through therapy, relationships, or self-reflection) is much needed. Like Nisargadatta Maharaj says, “You cannot leave a mess behind and go beyond – it will pull you back”. But that’s a subject for another post 😉

Your goal

sattva guna

The whole spiritual discipline of Yoga can be said to be about transforming tamas, balancing rajas, and developing sattva. The same with other wisdom traditions, although they may not speak of this process in terms of the gunas.

In fact meditation and other spiritual practices are all great techniques for developing a sattvic mind and heart. And going on a spiritual retreat is like a tamas and rajas detox!

So what should your goal be?

If you are looking for a good life, aim for a predominance of sattva and a positive presence of rajas . If, in the other hand, you are serious about enlightenment, aim for 100% sattva.

This is the way I see it:

  • Priority 1: Transform tamas – get rid of as much “junk” as you can.
  • Priority 2: Balance rajas – cultivate energy and movement in a balanced way.
  • Priority 3: Develop sattva – develop peace, contentment, and self-awareness.

And all of these is a moment-by-moment practice.

Develop the habit of asking yourself “What is the quality of this action I want to take?”. Do the same with the thoughts that popup in your head, the emotions that arise, and the things you consume through your five senses.

Finally, don’t beat yourself up about tamas and rajas! Be patient, but vigilant. You will still fall into them many times, either consciously or unconsciously. Personal growth and spiritual transcendence are lifetime journeys – a marathon, not a sprint. Besides, if you beat yourself up for the “mistakes” you make, you will only dive deeper into tamas.

The insights that I share in this post have served me as a map in my own journey for nearly two decades. May it be helpful for you too!

Please leave a comment sharing the one insight that you got from this article. What did it inspire you to change in your life?

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Images attribution: (gunas triangle); (man with three faces); (sattva).

  • What did this article inspire you to change in your life?

    • Raghav Sharma

      Don’t u think that what’s and how’s take up too much of our thinking,consequently living with stresses and all that,while we could do things that just make us feel that it’s right thing to do.. #IYKWIM

    • It indeed takes effort to improve oneself. The easiest path is just to do what is most natural and easy. But that is not optimal, and there is very little growth in that.

      Also, what feels right is often different from what is right. The good path and the feel good path are often different. And unless we put some time to reflect on the quality of our actions, thoughts, and experiences, we will rarely find out the difference.

    • Pravah Shukla

      Really true. You are have the power of simplicity.

    • rrg

      That is where the concept of “conscience” comes in.

  • Eklavya

    Dear Giovanni, your knowledge of the subjects of Indian spirituality keeps amazing me. I am yet to see a young age western other than you with such deep knowledge of this stuff. You very rightly says that these three gunas dominates the life of every individual and it is our prime duty to travel the upright path of Tamas to Sattva. I hope this article will inspire many to read Bhagavad Gita in detail (which actually is like Bible to Hinduism – not India, I must correct you on it :-).

    Keep writing such stuff my friends.


    • Namaste, Eklavya!
      And I’ve welcomed your suggestion and changed it to “Bible of Hinduism”.

    • rrg

      There is an issue with that issue. “Bible” is a single book or the “only book”,
      while Bhagavat Geetha is merely one among thousands of books and
      treatises ((not all of which may be written down) and and is considered
      “Vedanta” – one which explains the gyst of the vedas – through the frame
      created through Mahaabharatha. The intention of Mahaabhaaratha and
      Bhagavat Geetha is to explain the concept of Dharma (taking appropriate
      actions/decisions), which can be interpreted only through CONSCIENCE
      depending on circumstances (as explained through hundreds of instances
      in Mahabharatha), “Karma” (duty/action/consequences), Gunas (which you have already explained) etc. (there are no equivalent words for many in
      Samskritha – kindly pardon me if my words are incorrect/inaccurate).

      Further, there is nothing called “Hinduism” – it is a word coined by the British to the majority community in India – i.e., non-christian and non-muslim) it is a culture developed over thousands of years, and
      not a religion.

      My intention is not to find fault with you or to exhibit knowledge (my
      knowledge being extremely limited) – but only to give a fair viewpoint
      as per my experience, reading and also having moved with some very
      knowledgeable people.

      In conclusion, “Hindu Bible” is an avoidable phrase, in my humble

      Notwithstanding all this, I enjoyed your article.

    • Thank you for sharing your perspectives. I used the term “Bible of Hinduism” as a metaphor of how important that book is, in the Hindu culture.

    • rrg

      Indeed nice of you to have responded. You have been active!

  • ahemmingsen

    This is a really useful way to categorize emotion & sensation to be able to do something with them. It’s taken me about a year now to be able to notice the feeling of the moment & either allow it to grow or dissipate rather than do what it will in my monkey mind. This post really helps me to sort some of the more nebulous emotions of the rajas into proper place, as well as helps me to have compassion for those struggling with tamas.

  • Quintin Beukes

    Giovanni, you have an amazing way to deliver great wisdom in a beautiful and simple manner. Thank you for being this voice. I find a lot of joy through your blog posts and e-mails.

  • Sukesh Tandon

    This is very well written and beautifully explained. Lord Krishna would have been really proud of you to send out his messages across cultures in such a simple manner.
    Modern day corporate life is very mechanical wherein most jobs are done only with an intention of time bound delivery. It is very important to understand consequences of your action. The empowerment that comes with the ownership of consequences is amazing.

    Gita is one book which defines how humans should behave in this ever evolving world. Lot of our problems would disappear if we conduct ourselves or just stay conscious of gunas defined in gita

    • Thank you for your kind words, Sukesh!
      I agree with you that the Gita hold a lot of wisdom about how to live better lives and transform the world.

  • Jenetta

    What a great article. And very commendable. You have done a great job of a complex subject. As a past teacher of Vedanta, Gita, Upanisads and Sanskrit I commend you on your work here. Thank you from Brahmacharini Shanti Chaitanya (my Guru was Swami Chinmayananda of Chinmaya Mission)

  • Vasu Arora

    I loved this article!
    Thank you so much for exposing me a treasure I was unaware of, that (ironically) is from my own Indian culture!

  • Atman Nityananda

    Nice article indeed. This is the way I also approach the spiritual journey. This knowledge about gunas gives a very clear map about all aspects of spiritual discipline and practices as well as about life!

    Om peace!

  • Scandi

    Very nice article, but the “clumsy” (not using a conjunct consonant for ttv) and slightly incorrect spelling of sattva (long, “double” a at the end) in devanaagarii made me, uh, “furious”! ; ) Here’s the correct spelling:


    • Hi Scandi, the transliteration I used is the most common one I find in English.

  • Pravah Shukla

    I loved your article. It is in so simple words that I am sure everybody will like to read it. Actually, the etymology of spirituality has changed over the period of time. People are showing too much outer but very less people are going in and deeper. Whenever a person speaks about spirituality, people prefer to be distant as they fear that while getting spirituality they have to leave home and all worldly things. But they do not understand that spirituality is something inner not outer. So I must appreciate you for your kind and simple words for the mass to understand the same in better manner.
    Many many thanks.

    • rrg

      Nice understanding…

  • jaimin shah

    I would like to change my life using this article. Thank you.please give me your contact.

  • Kacey Davy

    Great article! I teach my students about the gunas all of the time, as they are the foundation for understanding our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. The Yoga Sutras and Bhagavad Gita also speak of them often and it’s an important concept to understand. Anyway, I often have students try to label them as good or bad and I teach that we need all three to balance us. Do you think that tamas always exists in a negative way?

    • In creation, the 3 gunas are needed for manifestation, so they are neither good nor bad.
      In the path of self-transformation, we see tamas as something to move away from, and sattva something to pursue.

    • Kacey Davy

      Thanks that’s an excellent distinction

  • Nathan Soussana

    Great article, Giovanni! Really helps understand how to live a good life and it summarizes very well the self-help journey in general. First getting rid off the “bad” stuff (addictions, bad health choices, negative thinking, etc.), then triggering positive energy and “good” emotions in order to get rid off / limit the “bad” ones (fear, stress, anger, etc.) to finally arrive at a state of peace of mind, freedom of mind and self-mastery. This article gives a good structure to follow. Thanks!

  • Keerthana Karthik

    “If you are looking for a good life, aim for a predominance of sattva and a positive presence of rajas .” This is nice. Thanks.

  • Vivienne

    After years of identifying as predominantly tamasic in nature and criticising myself, I found a description of tamas as the quality that manifests regulation, rest and dissolution. Tamas brings an action to a conclusion, allows a rest that clears the way for sattva to manifest into a fresh action. The quality of tamas present in, say, a team sport would be the rules which hold the form and order. In a meeting we need Minutes that record past thoughts actions and decisions. Without that element of tamas meetings become chaotic. And there’s ‘Black Hat thinking’ as identified by Edward de Bono…So tamas is not all darkness! Composting is a wonderful example of the three Gunas working together.

    • From the point of view of the way things work, yes, sometimes we need Tamas to balance things out. From the point of view of personal growth, especially in the search of enlightenment, the general process is moving from Tamas and Rajas to Sattva.

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